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Live Sound Intermediate - Online


Live Sound Intermediate  - Online

Our LSI Online Course comprises of 15 lectures.
• Each lecture comprises of four parts with videos for each part (a total of 65 videos).
• Each video is accompanied by:
 - notes, graphics, graphs etc., used in the video
 - 5 multiple choice 'quiz' questions for you to check on your understanding of each lecture content. 
• Each lecture (a set of videos) is accompanied by further notes on the subject matter.
• After each lecture with its suite of videos has been viewed, the suite of videos for the next lecture will become available to you. This is to ensure that the lectures are viewed in the most effective learning order.
• On completing all 15 lectures, there is an optional 45 question exam. If you complete and pass the exam, a Certificate of Understanding will be issued to you. If you are not satisfied with your results, after further study,  you can re-sit the exam for free and then subsequent re-sits will be charged at £50 plus vat.  It is not mandatory to complete the exam at the end of the course. It is your choice.
. Ideally Live Sound Fundamentals should be studied before going on to Live Sound Intermediate. If you are unsure if you have the necessary skills and knowledge to go straight onto Live Sound Intermediate, please take the free assessment first to guide your decision.

Lecture 01: Advanced Acoustics
   -    Impedance & coupling

Skills:              Identify and apply acoustic impedance matching. Deploy sound sources utilizing acoustic coupling efficiently. Design and setup line array systems with a higher understanding of their fundamental acoustic principles. Principle of acoustic impedance.

Knowledge:   Importance of acoustic impedance matching. Uses of horns as acoustic impedance matching devices. Acoustic coupling effect. Line arrays fundamental acoustic theory and theoretical applications.
PT1: Advanced acoustic properties
  Current & Impedance
Acoustic Power
Examples of acoustic impedance matching
   PT2: Horns
  Horns working principles
Types of horns
       PT3: Acoustic Coupling
  Wave interference
Sound sources coupling

PT4: Line Array Theory
 Inverse square law Line source behavior – cylindrical wave Level drop over distance comparison Phase and combining waves Line array theory example Pressure ratio Effective line length 

Lecture 02: The world of Psychoacoustics  
 - Critical Listening

Skills:                Apply appropriate signal processing when mixing multiple sounds together and recognise the principal psychoacoustic phenomena that occur. Utilise “critical listening” when exposed to simple and complex sounds. Deploy fundamental stereo recording techniques with confidence and deep understanding of the acoustic and psychoacoustic principles that those techniques are based on. Protect the hearing system and manage accordingly the sound pressure level of the work environment.                       

Knowledge:   Anatomy & physiology of the human ear and its acoustic correlations. How acoustic sound is converted and conveyed to the brain. Pitch perception and frequency masking. Acoustics behind consonance and dissonance. Hearing health, safety procedures and possible hearing damage/loss causes. How the hearing system discriminate spatialisation and fundamental associated stereo techniques. Applications of psychoacoustics concepts into mixing.
  PT1:Anatomy and Physiology of the Human Ear
    The external ear canal
 The middle ear
 The basilar membrane
 Critical bands and masking
 The hair cells
 The acoustic centre in the brain
PT2: How we perceive sound & hearing damage 
Equal loudness curves
Pitch perception
High frequencies convey detail
The tonotropic nature of the basilar membrane
Consonance and dissonance of sounds
Hearing damage
Hearing loss
PT3: Directivity and Stereo
  Ear-brain deduction of sound sources spatial position
Phantom images
Fundamental stereo microphone

PT4: Application to Mixing Music
Tactile and visual components of music and sound Acclimatization and Control Room monitoring levels / equal loudness curves
Mechanisms of phantom tones and concept of autocorrelation
The ‘missing fundamental’ concept and it’s demonstration
Reduction of masking
Ear distortion
The Haas Window and demonstration of comb filtering
Bibliography & Key books worth reading

Lecture 03: Electrics 4
 - Advanced Mains

Skills:              Identify venues ground connection types. Identify ground loop issues in main power systems. Correct power systems with bad power factor. Use appropriate wire size and length to obtain best damping factor. Choose correct cable types in both RF and digital worlds to avoid signal drop caused by skin effect.
Knowledge:   Different types of grounding connections found in music venues and their relation with possible ground loop noises. Properties and relevance of power factor in live show scenarios. Theory and applications of power factor correction. Damping factor theory and its importance in low frequency reproduction quality. Good practices and methods to obtain good damping factor for sub woofers in live shows. Effects of skin effect in high frequencies signals transmission as RF and digital.
PT1:  Earthing 
  Protective Earthing
Venue Power Systems
PT2: Power Factor
 Power Factor definition
  Real Power Reactive Power Power Triangle
How to correct P.F.
  PT3: Damping Factor
 Speaker level and cable resistance
Damping factor definition Damping factor example
Correct speaker cabling

PT4: Skin Effect
Differences between DC and AC
Skin Effect
Skin Effect in digital audio
Skin Effect in RF

Lecture 04: Advanced Electrics   
 - Active Components

Skills:               Understand and interpret a condenser microphone schematic and understand the functions of its passive and active components. Understand how semiconductors work and the applications of its most basic electronic component, the diode. Understand how transistors work and their functions and applications in a simple audio amplifier circuit. Identify the different components of impedance. Understand when and why to apply impedance matching or mismatching.
Knowledge:   Difference between active and passive components. Uses of active and passive components in a condenser microphone. Semi conductor properties and types. Diodes working principle and uses.Transistor definition, working principle and types. Transistor applications and understand of basic amplifier schematic. Impedance definition and its component. Impedance matching and mismatching effects and uses.
PT1: Capacitor Microphone
     Capacitor microphone working principle
Schematic and signal flow:
•DC blocking capacitor
•Active Component (transistor)
•Output balancing transformer
•Mixing desk connection
•Pad switch and voltage divider
PT2:Semiconductors and Diodes
Semi conductors materials
Donor, Acceptor
P-N Junction
Rectifier schematic
Power supply unit
PT3: Transistors and Amplifiers 
Definition of transistor
Types of transistors
Bipolar Junction Transistor working principle
Transistor linear response region
Amplifier schematic
Amplifier signal flow

PT4: Impedance
Definition Reactance Inductive and Capacitive reactance
Relationship between Voltage and Current in a circuit Capacitive reactance calculation
Inductive reactance calculation
Mic and Line level impedance examples
Impedance matching with a D.I. box

Lecture 05: System 4
 - Networking

Skills:             Identify components required for digital audio networks. Create and manage basic network systems. Fault-find & solve issues with digital audio networks.
Knowledge:   Evolution of network technology through history. Network structures and the components used to built network systems. Hardware necessary to create network infrastructures and its technical properties. Logic structure of network protocol. Network protocol standards. Audio over network technology and protocols.
PT1:Network overview
 Computer network history
Network components
Network topologies
PT:2 Network Hardware
Network cables categories
Copper cable types
Network cable conductor types
Network cable connectors
RJ45 connector wiring standards
Fiber cables types
Singlemode, multimode
Fiber cables categories
Fiber cables color coding
Fiber cables connectors
SFP modules

    PT3: Network     structure and protocols
  The OSI Model
The OSI & TCP/IP Models
Network Protocols
Mac Address
IP Address
Subnet Mask
Unicast, Multicast,Broadcast

PT4: Digital audio networks 
Audio over network
Audio over network types
Audio over network protocols
Protocols characteristics
Dante Overview
AVB Overview

Lecture 06: Monitors 2  
 - Digital consoles & IEM

Skills:              Identify and setup the equipment needed in digital monitoring systems. Best practices in the use of IEMs. Combine loudspeakers and IEM. Manage and utilize snapshots and scenes in a monitor show file.              
Knowledge:   The differences between Analogue and Digital monitor systems. The contents of a Digital console show file for monitors. An overview of Snapshots and scenes used on a monitor show file. Digital console latency and the need to minimize it. An overview of IEM use in Live Sound. Monitor engineering with a combination of loudspeakers and IEM.
PT1: Mixing monitors on a digital console
    Monitors- A recap
Pre-show preparation
Console Setup
Creating and managing a show file
Useful shortcuts & workflows to include in your file
PT2: Considerations when mixing on a digital console
Gain Structure and fader / send resolution
Channel Labels
Console layout
 PT3: Digital console scenes and snapshots   
What are Scenes and Snapshots?
Key terms and principles
Multi artist/band showfiles single song/show (festivals/Awards shows)
Single artist/band showfiles (with multiple songs)

PT4: In-Ear Monitoring

Overview of IEM

Types of IEM headphones/moulds

Types of IEM RF and Wired systems

Setup and management of RF and Wired IEM systems

Maintenance of IEM headphones/moulds

Combining IEM and Loudspeakers

Lecture 07: Microphones 2
 - Application and Techniques

Skills:               Able to make appropriate microphone choices and placement for the source and application. Able to use mic polarity and polar pattern appropriate to the source and application.

Knowledge:    Understand dynamic & condenser microphone operating principles when used to capture sources. Understand advantages & disadvantages of both.
PT1:Microphone Applications and Techniques  
 Microphone placement: reality check!
Microphone placement: Overview Microphone placement: Inverse Square Law
Microphone placement: Microphone ‘spill’ Microphone placement: Common method

PT:2 Microphone techniques for Specific instruments/sources

PT3: Microphone techniques for Specific instruments/sources
  Bass Guitar
Upright/Double bass
Electric Guitar
Acoustic Guitar

PT4: Microphone techniques for Specific instruments /sources
  Keyboard Instruments:
 - Acoustic Pianos
 - Electric Organs and pianos

Lecture 08: Yamaha PM series 
 - Dynamics

Skills:               Setup a complete Yamaha PM system. Operate the hardware and software.
Knowledge:   The development and history of the Yamaha PM mixing system and current system components. Setup and connections of the Yamaha mixing system. Desk capabilities. Advanced features of the desk
PT1: System Overview
  Company Introduction
PM series components and Specifications
PT2: System Setup
  How to connect a system together
System configuration types
Live setup procedure
PT3: Desk functions overview
  Basic show setup
Channel and bus processing
 Signal flow

PT4: Advanced desk features
Effects Engine Scenes
Stereo and Multitrack Recording and Playback
 Remote Control
Offline Software

Lecture 09: Avid S6L Series

Skills:              Setup a complete Avid S6L system. Operate the hardware and software.

Knowledge:   The development and history of the Avid S6L mixing system and current system components.
PT1: AVID S6L System overview 
    Avid company Introduction
Avid Live Sound history
S6L Hardware Overview:
 - E6L Engine
 - S6L Surface
 - I/O Racks
PT2: System setup B25
  Device connection
Power up
Software Navigation and GUI layout Checking hardware status and I/O Rack assignment
The ‘Config’ button
Power down or lock the system
PT3: Desk overview & basic functions 
 File Save/Transfer/Load
Bus assignment
 Channel and bus processing
Plug-in assignment
 VCA & mute assignment

PT4: Desk advanced functions
Stereo and Multitrack recording and playback
Waves Integration
Remote control

Lecture 10: Digico SD Series

Skills:               Setup a complete DiGiCo SD system. Operate the hardware and software.
Knowledge:   The development and history of the DiGiCo SD mixing system and current system components. Setup and connection of the DiGiCo SD mixing system. Desk capabilities. Advanced features of the desk.
PT1: DiGiCo SD Series Overview
     Company overview
SD Console Range
SD7Q Tech Spec
PT2: System Overview 
Stage Boxes & Cards
DMI Cards
PT3: Desk overview 
  GUI layout
Desk setup
Signal flow
Channel flow
Bus processing

PT4: Advanced console features  
Snapshots - Show files
Remote control
Offline software
DiGiCo Tips

Lecture 11: SSL Live Series

Skills:              Setup a complete SSL Live system. Operate the hardware and software.
Knowledge:   The development and history of the SSL Live mixing system and current system components. Setup and connection of the SSL Live mixing system. Advanced Features. Desk Capabilities.
PT1:SSL Live Series Overview 
SSL Company overview
SSL Live series
Live series Specs and some new concepts:
   - Query
 - Stem Groups
 - Full and Dry paths
 - Multichannel paths
 PT:2 System setup 
Rear Panel connection
Blacklight connection
Stagebox setup
Surface Layout
Console I/O page
PT3: Desk overview 
GUI layout – Tour of the menu system
Desk setup + patching
Signal flow re-cap
Channel and bus processing

PT4: Desk advanced functions
  Scenes - Show files
Multitrack recording and playback
Remote control
Offline software

Lecture 12: Acoustics 3
 - Predictions

Skills:               Ability to extrapolate room information from a CAD drawing, PDF or paper drawing. Learning to shoot a room to create a prediction. Ability to draw a room and design a system in L-Acoustics Soundvision or d&b ArrayCalc. Ability to set-up a basic subwoofer array.
Knowledge:   Line Array prediction software and why we use them. What type of information we need to design a system into the software. Sub Arrays and their application. Wider grasp of system design and software so it can be applied across a variety of manufacturers software and equipment. 
PT1: Introduction to System Design
     Old School vs. New School PA Systems
Prediction Software Presentation
Tools and Design Criterias
CAD uses and implementations
PT2: d&b ArrayCalc 
  Software approachB23
Software user interface and navigation
Basic System Design Creation
PT3: L-Acoustics Soundvision
 Software approach
Software user interface and navigation
Basic System Design Creation

PT4: EASE Focus 3 / Controlling the Low End
Software approach
Software user interface and navigation
Basic System Design Creation
Different types and uses of Sub Arrays

Lecture 13: Acoustics 4
 - Analysis

Skills:              Setup Smaart to start taking measurements. Look at frequency response of a device under test. Carry out basic time alignment tasks
Knowledge:   Understanding Analysis software available on market and why we use it. Understanding the difference between an RTA and FFT. Understanding how to read data from Smaart. Using measurement tools to help in fault finding skills. Equipment & Tool familiarisation.                                       
PT1:Introduction to the FFT
Fourier, the father of the FFT
First tools and applications in the Live Industry
Introduction to Smaart
PT:2 Getting Started With System Optimization
  Considerations before we start
Smaart first launch setup
Smaart’s Options Tabs walkthrough

PT3: Getting Started with Smaart 
  Basic measurement rig setup
Smaart’s Measurement Tools (RTA & Spectrograph)
PT4: The Transfer Function  
  Transfer function introduction
Delay Measurement and Alignment
EQ Measurement

Lecture 14: System 5
 - Optimisation tools

Skills:                 Understand and create a basic audio network. Ability to utilize the basic feature of the Lake controller software.
Knowledge:     Advantages and applications of digital audio over network. System processors utilities and functions. Lake LM series features and processing capabilities. Lake controller software setup and configuration. Application of Lake processing for standard system tuning.
PT1:Digital Audio Network
Introduction to a digital audio network
Dante Protocol
System processors
 Lake LM Series processors
PT:2 Lake Controller Introduction
 Controller graphic Layout
Home page
Modules page
PT3: Lake Controller I/O Config  
 Input routing
Dante configuration
Output routing
PT4: Lake Controller EQ and Groups  
 Types and applications of EQs
Groups manager
Analyser integration
Secondary Controller
Signal redundancy simulation

Lecture 15: Rigging for Live Sound

Skills:              Identify and recognize the hardware and tools utilized in standard rigging procedures. Work as sound engineer with a wider understanding of the risks and the safety aspects of rigging equipment and procedures. Communicate with precision and confidence to the rigging department using the correct terminology.        

Knowledge:   Function and uses of rigging hardware in the live entertainment business. Importance of safety in rigging practice. Common practices and procedures undertaken with rigging hardware.                                                      
Why Fly
Consequences of rigging failure
Equipment regulations
Operating regulations B23
Common practices and procedures
PT:2 Applied aspects of lifting 
Commonly used equipment
Weight of the load under the hoist
Total weight of load
Other lifting gear
Key points
PT3: Theory 
 Forces required to lift
Shock loading – Extra forces
Compromises and solutions

PT4: Equipment
D:d ratio
Wire rope
Other equipment
Side loading

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